What are radiological deep learning models actually learning?

Diagnosing cardiomegaly (enlarged heart)

Patient with cardiomegaly: heatmap of CNN on left, original image on right
Patient with cardiomegaly: heatmap of CNN on left, original image on right

Pneumonia

Patient with pneumonia: heatmap of CNN on left, original image on right
Patient with pneumonia: heatmap of CNN on left, original image on right

Exploiting additional features

Portable x-rays as general indicators of disease

Improving transparency in CNNs for radiology

CheXNet heatmap and prediction code running in the browser through binder. In the example shown, the laterality marker (“L” in the top right corner of the image) was used to calibrate the probability of pneumonia downwards by identifying the scanner used for the x-ray.

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